Journal Paper

Grid Integration of Electric Vehicles and Demand Response with Customer Choice

S. Shao; M. Pipattanasomporn; and S. Rahman

IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid


As electric vehicles (EVs) take a greater share in the personal automobile market, their penetration may bring higher peak demand at the distribution level. This may cause potential transformer overloads, feeder congestions and undue circuit faults. This paper focuses on the impact of charging EVs on a residential distribution circuit. Different EV penetration levels, EV types and charging profiles are considered. In order to minimize the impact of charging EVs on a distribution circuit, a demand response strategy is proposed in the context of a smart distribution network. In the proposed DR strategy, consumers will have their own choices to determine which load to control and when. Consumer comfort indices are introduced to measure the impact of demand response on consumers’ life style. The proposed indices can provide electric utilities a better estimation of the customer acceptance of a DR program, and the capability of a distribution circuit to accommodate EV penetration.

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